June 6, 2016
Sooner or later when setting up a server you’ll want to create some MySQL databses and users. If you’re not proficient in writing SQL queries or just wanted to use a nice GUI tool for the task, you’d need to connect remotely to your databse host. But of course you do not want to expose your MySQL port to the internet … Or suppose you want to debug some remote service, which is only accessible locally on the remote machine …
Either way, you will need some kind of port and/or socket forwarding, preferably by means of an SSH tunnel.
A simple ssh tunnel #
Suppose you have MariaDB running with a default configuration on your server. That means MariaDB listens on
127.0.0.1 at port
The following command would forward that port to your local machine:
$ ssh -L 3306:localhost:3306 email@example.com
Note: in case it’s not obvious .. replace ‘myuser’ and ‘your.server.com’ with your username and your server’s FQDN respectively.
You can now open a second terminal and verify the forwarding works by inspecting
netstat -tlupn’s output:
• ~ $ netstat -tulpn Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State PID/Program name ... tcp 0 0 127.0.0.1:3306 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 23080/ssh: /home/myuser ...
Or you know .. try connecting with
$ mysql -u root -p -h 127.0.0.1.
A simple socket forward #
Now suppose you configured your MySQL database server to only listen on a unix socket and skip networking completely …
[mysqld] socket = /run/mysqld/mysqld.sock skip-networking
Modify the ssh command slightly and achieve the same result:
$ ssh -L 3306:/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock firstname.lastname@example.org
Okay, so that works … but you need to keep your terminal window open the entire time or let ssh fork into the background. And more importantly, you need to do this every time you want to connect to your database! Sure, you could script that. But why not let systemd handle it for us?
I’m not sure since which version systemd has support for socket activation but the manpage has been there since 2010, so chances are the following pieces will work for you, given you have a distribution with systemd.
Systemd gives us a tool to dynamically trigger services on a connection to a socket or port with systemd.socket. The manpage says:
A unit configuration file whose name ends in “.socket” encodes information about an IPC or network socket or a file system FIFO controlled and supervised by systemd, for socket-based activation.
Ideally, we want to have a socket locally to which we can connect with out MySQL program or GUI of choice and ‘magically’ have a SSH tunnel established for this socket. This post gives some insight on how to do this, albeit with a different usecase.
First, make sure that you can connect via ssh with public keys and without a password, e.g. via an agent or by specifying an appropriate key on the commandline.
Then, we create two files in
~/.config/systemd/user/. You might need to create the directory first with
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/systemd/user/. Also, the ‘user’ in this path shall not be replaced by your username, that is a literal ‘user’.
[Socket] ListenStream=/home/myuser/.ssh/mysqlsock.socket Accept=true [Install] WantedBy=sockets.target
[Service] ExecStart=/usr/bin/ssh -T -S none your.server.com 'nc -U /run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' StandardInput=socket
In the first file, specify the location of the socket that you want to listen to with
ListenStream=. You can also specify a port if you prefer. In the second file specify the ssh command to connect to the remote socket.
This requires the
openbsd-netcat to be installed on your server, to be able to use the
-U option. Alternatively you can try using socat. Also, adjust the path to
mysqld.sock if you have a nondefault configuration.
-S none is there to disable use of multiplexing for this connection. While it might be desirable to have multiplexing if you open and close the connection rapidly and repeatedly, it can also lead to hard-to-diagnose problems.
Reload your user’s systemd instance with ..
$ systemctl --user daemon-reload
.. and start listening on the socket with ..
$ systemctl --user start mysqlsock.socket
You should notice that an appropriate socket appeared:
• ~ $ ls -l ~/.ssh/mysqlsock.socket srw-rw-rw- 1 myuser users 0 Jun 6 02:53 /home/myuser/.ssh/mysqlsock.socket
Now you can try to connect to this socket. We’ll first try with
• ~ $ nc -U ~/.ssh/mysqlsock.socket Y 5.5.5-10.1.14-MariaDB<^A[W~75B/`��!^B?�^UxY6B':1%eP@0mysql_native_password
Not really readable. But you see that the connection apparently succeeded.
To make this persistent, enable the socket on boot:
$ systemctl --user enable mysqlsock.socket
Update for ssh-agent: #
If you do not use your user’s systemd instance but specify them as system-wide unit files, then when the systemd service is started by the socket, it has no knowledge of your
$SSH_AUTH_SOCK and thus the ssh command within will fail with a denied pubkey. MySQL Workbench apparently interprets this as an offline server since you are using a local socket, ‘fails’ silently and tells you the server is shut off. You will probably see exit code 255 on your mysqlsock@… services when that happens.
Either stick to using per-user systemd units as shown above or alternatively we need to tell systemd where to find our ssh-agent by manually specifying the
SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. For this to work it obviously needs to be a fixed location. If you use Gnome’s built-in ssh-agent aka. keyring this is usually
/run/user/$UID/keyring/ssh. If you are using ssh-agent you can specify the desired socket on the commandline. So just add the line starting with
Environment=... in your mysqlsock@.service and replace
$EUID accordingly. (You can find it simply with
$ echo $UID or
[Service] Environment="SSH_AUTH_SOCK=/run/user/$UID/keyring/ssh" ExecStart=... StandardInput=socket
Point your MySQL GUI to it #
In my case I wanted to have an easy way to connect to my database hosts with ‘MySQL Workbench’ and with systemd.socket I finally achieved this goal.